- I'm Jon-Paul Dyson, director ofthe International Center for the Historyof Electronic Games at The Strong Museum.- And I'm Shannon Simons,curator for Electronic Gamesat the Strong Museum.- And this is every iconic videogame for the last 40 years.[rock music]- [Shannon] When decidingwhich game to pick each year,we looked at a variety of factors.The game had to be iconic.People had to recognize it.It had wide geographic reachand was played all across the world.It had cultural significancewith a lot of people evenoutside the gaming industry.- 1979, Asteroids.In the 1970s Atari ruled the arcade scene,but in the late 1970scompetition came from Japanin the form of Space Invaders.Atari needed a followup.Asteroids was the answer.This rock blasting game featuringasteroids hurdling through spaceinspired by the original Space War gamefrom the early 1960s,but it proved to be a gold mine for Atari,raking in the quarters,both in the arcade,and eventually whenported to home console.Asteroids combined thisamazing fluidity of movementwith excitement.The sound ramped up, the action ramped up,the asteroids came faster and faster.It generated coins by the bucketfuland really made a lot of money for Atariand brought internal fameto Ed Logg and Lyle Rains the developers.- 1980, Pac-Man, when creator Toru Iwataniwas eating a pizza and removed a slicehe got this image of this yellow ballgoing across the screen eating pellets,and he thought thatthat would be somethingthat would appeal widelyacross genders, across ages.Not only did Pac-Mando well in the arcade,but it became the first gameto incite this licensing craze.Pac-Man's fun for everyone.All you have to do is go around a maze.And it also had these wonderful ghosts.In 1982 Ms. Pac-Manbecame one of the firsticonic female video game characters.- 1981 Donkey Kong.Donkey Kong introduced to video gamestwo of its most important characters.The first was the gamescreator, Shigeru Miyamotowho saved Nintendo whenthey were desperatelylooking for a game to replacetheir failed Radar Scope.It was a delightful game featuringa character called Jump Man,who saved this damsel in distressfrom the clutches of an evil gorilla.The second characterwas, of course, Jump Man,who we know as Mario.Without Donkey Kong there may be no Marioand video games would be verydifferent than they are today.- 1982, E.T.
The Extra Terrestrial.E.T.
Is an example of a video gamethat's remembered forall the wrong reasons.It's considered one of thebiggest commercial failuresof the entire video game industry.It only took five anda half weeks to developdue to licensing rights and trying to getthe game out for the holiday season.[video game noises]The game just didn't play well.Legend had it thatafter the game's failureAtari buried thousands uponthousands of these cartridgesin a landfill in the New Mexico desertthat turned out to be trueduring a 2014 excavationwhen all of these cartridges were dug up.E.T.
Is often credited as a great exampleof why the video gameindustry crashed in 1983.A lotta games were being producedand the console marketwas glutted with gamesthat just weren't selling.The PC industry was alsotaking off at the time.But when people talk about the crash,they always talk about E.T.- 1983, M.U.L.E.When people think of video gamesthey usually think of thegames, not the creators.But when Trip Hawkins foundedElectronic Arts in 1982he wanted to change that.He wanted to bring thedevelopers to the floor.And so he got some of the best developersin the business to create games.One of those creators was Dan Bunten,who later became Danielle Bunten Berry.Bunten used to say that no one ever diedwishing they'd spent more timein front of a computer screenand wanted to bring that spiritof a board game to a computer game.M.U.L.E.
Did this successfully.It's a game designer's game,and one that is still influential today,shaping how we think of multiplayer gamesfor a mass audience.- 1984, King's Quest.The game developmentcompany, Sierra Online,became synonymous withgraphical adventures,mainly because of the successof the game King's Quest,developed and created byco-founder Roberta Williams,who became one of the mosticonic female video game designers.King's Quest combined the bestof early text adventure gameswith pioneering graphicsfor IBM's latest computer, The PC Junior.King's Quest allowed playersa freedom of movementthat they hadn't experienced before,including being able to move in front ofand behind objects on the screen.It's a game that appealed to everyone,both women and men alike,and people who perhapsweren't even generally fansof computer games at the time.Although the PC Junior itselfproved to be a commercial failure,King's Quest found newlife when it was portedto other computer systemssuch as the Commodore 64and the Apple II line.- 1985, Super Mario Bros.Mario first appeared inDonkey Kong as Jump Man.It wasn't until 1895when he first appearedin his breakout series [foreign language].Mario's gameplay became so popularbecause it was so simple.You scrolled in one direction,jumping over enemies like Koopa Troopas,and Goombas and try toavoid falling in pits,which made it easy to play for everyone,no matter what level you were.He has appeared in over 200 gameson every single Nintendoconsole ever created.And in the survey inthe 1990s more childrenrecognized Mario even than Mickey Mouse.1986, The Legend of Zelda.If you first played Zeldaon the Nintendo Entertainment System,you might be confused as towhy we're introducing thisin 1986 instead of 1987.But it actually premieredon the Japanese onlyNintendo Famicom DiskSystem as a flagship game.It was initially thoughtof by Shigeru Miyamoto,the creator of Mario and Donkey Kong,as a counterpoint.Something that was alittle bit more complex.It pioneered this open world feel.This miniature gardenwhere players would explorethe entire land of Hyrule openly,without having a discrete path to follow.It gave rise to some of the mosticonic lines in video game history.It's dangerous to go along, take this.The Legend of Zelda isstill popular today,even with some of themore recent iterationssuch as Breath of theWild and Ocarina of Time.[video game music]- 1987, Tecmo Bowl.Every year sports gamesdominate the bestsellers lists.Games like John MaddenFootball are purchasedby millions of players every year.But early on, football games werelargely absent from the video game scene.There have been games likeAtari's arcade game Football.But it was a pretty boringabstract game of x's and o's.Tecmo Bowl brought tovideo games live action,two screens, four players.It was a real hit in the arcade,and also when it was portedto the home console at home.Tecmo Bowl had bright simple colors,but most of all it was the actionthat took foremost in the game,and that's what made it really exciting.While the teams in Tecmo Bowlwere not real, the players were.A licensing deal with theNFL Players Associationbrought real named players to the gamethat brought an extra level of excitement.1988, Wasteland.Role playing games had beenaround since the 1970s.First in pen and paper formand then in computer games.But mostly they're fantasy games,things taking places in dungeonswith spells and wizards.Wasteland was different.Not set in a fantasy world,but a post-apocalyptic landscape,but one that was filled notonly with a little horror,but also a lotta humor as well.- 1989, Tetris.Tetris was originallycreated by a Soviet designer,Alexey Pajitnov, in 1984 on anElectronica 60 mini computer.But it wasn't until its release in 1989on Nintendo's Game Boy handheldthat it achieved real worldwide success.The title's a combinationof the Greek wordtetra for four and tennis.It also has its originsin the game Pentominoes,where players take puzzle piecesand fit them togetherin a box-like puzzle.Tetris became famous as agame that was easy to playbut difficult to master.Tetris is still probably the mostpopular puzzle game on the market.It's something that people can enjoynot only on their computersbut also on mobile handheld devices.It's a game you can play really quicklywhile you're waiting for the bus.- 1990, Microsoft Windows Solitaire.When we think of computer gameswe don't usually think of card games.But perhaps the most popularcomputer game of all timewas a card game, Microsoft Solitaire,introduced with Windows3.0 operating system.The game was crucial, not only in ensuringthat people wastedmillions of hours of timeplaying this addicting game,but also teaches them how to use a mouse,a device that was completelynew to many people,and so they could learnhow to click, drag,do other things with thisdevice by playing a game.- I totally don't play thatwhile I'm at work, do you?- No, not at all.- No.- No, never have, never have.[laughing]- 1991, Sonic the Hedgehog.In the early 1990s Sega and Nintendowere locked in a battlefor the hearts and mindsof their console fan base.Sega wanted to paint Nintendoas a console for children.They decided to have anin-house design contestto create a brand new character.They came up with theidea of this blue hedgehogcode named Mr. Needlemousewho became Sonic the Hedgehog.With Sonic the Hedgehogthey intended to appealto an older audience withsomeone who was more hip,cool, resonated with Gen X.Then with the advent of the Sega Genesisand especially with Sonicthe Hedgehog in 1991,Sega vaulted forward andjust absolutely dominatedthe 16-bit console market.- 1992, Mortal Kombat.Finish him.[voice game sounds and screaming]Never before has there been a gamethat's created so much excitement,or maybe I should say controversy.Mortal Kombat was a fighting gamewith over-the-top graphic violencethat today looks tame, butback then, outraged people.Some of those people were U.S. senators.The result was not onlya wildly popular game,but senate hearings thatled to the developmentof the ESRB, the rating codethat continues to governvideo games today.Mortal Kombat's violencewas not so much disturbingto some people because it was realistic.Ripping the spine out of our opponentis not necessarily realistic.But it was because it was so gratuitousand also because [voice muffled]it was marketed to children.Who a game is marketedto is sometimes importantin determining how people react to itas to what it actually contains.Mortal Kombat helped not onlyboost the fighting game scene,but also created an interest in gamesthat really were spectacles at the arcade.Games like StreetFighter Two would be onesin which players competedto see who was the best.Mortal Kombat has an important legacynot only for its sociopolitical effects,but also just for its effectsin the game world itself.1993, Doom.Anyone who played Doomwhen it first came outwill never forget the experience.This was just mesmerizing,adrenaline boosting,sheer joy of blasting awaythese enemies coming at you.Its first person perspectivewas revolutionary,and as revolutionary was theway that it was distributed.The digital shareware.You could download the first chapter,play it, and get hooked.John Carmack and JohnRomero were the geniuseswho set this ammo-blasting,adrenaline-fueled,action-packed adventureset to heavy metal musicthat really just turned thevideo game industry upside down.Doom popularized the first person shooter,showing how compelling it could beto look down the barrel of your gunat enemies swarming at you.It was a game that wasimpossible to turn away fromand you just had to keepplaying as long as you survived.- 1994, Super Metroid.Super Metroid is widelyconsidered the best gamein the entire Metroid franchise.As bounty hunter Samus, you'reon this isolated spaceship,going through, trying to capture pirates.Players of the originalMetroid probably rememberthat they reveal at theend Samus was a girl.Samus wasn't the first femaleprotagonist in a video game.But she certainly didbecome the most popular,especially of the era.And was the first to really be seenas a non-sexualized character.When she's in her armoryou really don't carewhether she's male orfemale, she's just awesome.Super Metroid was one of the first gamesto have multiple endings.Three in this particular case.And it became very popularin speed running communities,as they raced to beat the clockto get the best ending possible.- 1995, Command and Conquer.Command and Conquer wasn't the firstreal time strategy game from Westwood,but it was a game that brought togetherin a perfect combinationall the elements of skill,strategy, and speed to make for a goodreal time strategy game today.Command and Conquer reallyshowed other manufacturersthat RTSs, real time strategy games,had an audience who justcraved the excitementof trying to defeat your opponentwhile so many things arehappening all around you.- 1996, Tomb Raider.1996 was actually a reallybig year for video games,with releases of epics likeDiablo and Resident Evil.- [Woman] Look out, it's a monster.- Let me take care of this.[gunshots blasting]- But we picked TombRaider for one huge reason.And her name was Lara Croft.Lara was this no-nonsenseIndiana Jones-esque character.She was doing everythingthat the traditional action hero didexcept that she was doing it in hot pants.As awesome as Lara was, she can sometimesbe seen as a sex symbol as well.Tomb Raider really set thestandard for 3D video gameswith the ability for charactersto move in every direction,to jump, climb, swing, andin this particular case,find some pretty cool treasure.1997, Final Fantasy VII.When Hironobu Sakaguchi releasedthe original Final Fantasy,it wasn't the first role playing game,but it was really the firstto take it to that next level,but in 1997 when Squarepublished the seventh iterationof their Final Fantasy genreit really, really broke the mold.Prior to this role playing gameswere mostly super popular in Japan.Final Fantasy VII explodedthe role playing genrein America and Europe.The game allowed you to explorelots of different areas,and as one of these originalfour heroes of light,as you tried to go out and savethe world from destruction,you were able to explore different areas,find treasure, and level upall of your weapons and gear.If you started out as a fighteryou definitely had acooler sword by the end.With characters like Cloud Strife,the devilishly handsomeSephiroth, and Aerith,whose death unfortunately remainsone of the most tear-inducingmoments in video game history.[sad music]1998, Pokemon Red and Blue.1998 was a big year for Nintendo.They released what's considered sometimesthe most popular game of all time,The Legend of Zelda Ocarina of Time.[video game sounds]But in this case we're gonnatalk about a different game.A smaller one that changedthe way portable play worked.You might be a little confusedas to why we're introducingPokemon in 1998 when it actuallycame out in Japan in 1996.That was released asPokemon [foreign language],Red and Green.The original Red and Greenwas only released in Japan.And when it came over herethey decided to shorten it to Pokemonfrom the original title Pocket Monsters,because it needed to fit onthe small Game Boy screenand it was just easier to read.There was also a licensing issue,because there was a PocketMonsters game already over here.Creator Satoshi Tajiri wasthis huge bug collectorwhen he was a child.And he decided that hereally wanted to givechildren in Japanesecities the opportunityto do their own bug collecting.He had this vision ofinsects crawling alongthe game link cable thatconnected two Game Boys together.And thus, Pokemon was born.Pokemon is still considered one ofthe most popular RPGs of all time.And its legacy can still be seenin the 2016 augmentedreality game, Pokemon Goas people walk aroundwith their smartphonesand collect Pokemonright in their backyard.Pokemon also created anentire transmedia franchisethat included one of the most populartrading card games of alltime as well as anime series,movies, board games,pretty much everything you can think of,you can catch 'em all.- 1999, Shenmue.To the non-gamer, Shenmue soundslike maybe a killer whale.But in reality it's oneof the most excitingopen world games evercreated, a real pioneer,which players were lost in a worldwhere they could do all sorts of things,from battling enemies to racing forklifts.Shenmue liberated playersto explore in waysthat they hadn't really explored before.It's designer, Yu Suzuki,was a brilliant designerwho knew how to makeworlds seem to come alivein ways that really tasks the limitsof the Sega Dreamcast for playerswas a revelation of how immersivea video game world could be.2000, The Sims.One of the geniuses of Will Wrightis that he looked for inspirationsin the everyday world.His hit game Sim City drew on the waythat a model train set canbring alive a miniature world.Similarly, with The Simshe found a dollhousean inspiration for a new way of playing,one that really changed the way we look athow Sim games work and theworlds that they can create.People have been playing withdollhouses for centuries.But The Sims broughtalive worlds of playerswho interacted with eachother, had emotions,and did mundane, every daythings like going to workor using the bathroom.The game was strangely compelling.Players spent hoursbuilding their Sims up,seeing them interact with each other,and really creating thisdigital world that felt aliveand the realism and theemotions that the Sims feltand related to one another.- 2001, Halo: Combat Evolved.A game called GoldenEye on the Nintendo 64showed that first person shooterscould be successful on consoles.In 2001 Microsoft broke intothe home console market with their Xbox.They perfected it.Or at least came really, really close.Halo was a game that broke the boundariesof what a traditional firstperson shooter could be.It had a sweeping plot line,a highly developed world,and characters that playersreally, really bonded with.It also pioneered some new game mechanics,like the idea of only being ableto carry two weapons at a time.That forced players to assesand reassess every situationthat they went into in order to make surethat they had the correct weapon.Halo became known asthe Xbox's killer app,which basically means that theconsole might not have soldnearly so well without it.In fact, a full 50% of Xbox consoles soldin conjunction with acopy of the Halo game.Halo also became extraordinarilyfamous for its multiplayer,which might seem odd because it actuallycame out before the advent of Xbox Liveand players had to play on alocal area network connection.But it allowed up to 16people to play simultaneously,which was huge for a console at the time.- It may be an exaggeration to saythat the fate of the Xboxfranchise rested on Halo,but not that much of an exaggeration.The game was reallyinstrumental in cementingnot only the platform success,but an image of what sort of playerreally gravitated towards the Xbox.2002, Metal Gear Solid 2.Video games are usually built aroundspeed, action, and less so stealth.But the Metal Gear Solid franchisewas really key in bringing thatgame mechanic to popularity.And yet this game hadits own form of stealth.Metal Gear Solid 2 reshapedthe face of stealth games.Hideo Kojima's brilliantgame really broughtthe artistry of a stealth gamewith its different demands on a playerto a new height thathadn't been reached before.Metal Gear Solid is the most enduringstealth franchise in video games.And Metal Gear Solid 2 waskey to making that happen.2003, Call of Duty.World War II is oftenknown as the good war,with clear protagonists and antagonists.The result is that it is easilyported over to video games.But no game has ever done it as well,perhaps, as Call of Duty.It put players on amission to fight the enemyin a way that was thrilling,and at the time, highly realistic.Just as generations earlier,little kids that playedwith little green army menin their sandboxes, now kids all grown up,have an amazing time playing in this worldof Word War II in which you weretrying to fight the enemy and stay alive.As a franchise, Call of Dutyhas been a tremendous hitfor Activision and some ofthe bestselling games of all time.- 2004, World of Warcraft.In 1997 Richard Garriott coined the termmassively multiplayeronline role playing game,or MMORPG for short, forhis game Ultima Online.But it wasn't until 2004when Blizzard releasedWorld of Warcraft when thegenre really took hold.With its peak of 12 million players,WOW really took the internet by storm.Not only was it an easier RPG,which allowed players whomaybe wouldn't be so interestedin in depth role playing game to play,it also made it super easyfor people to catch upwith lots of XP givingquests and not huge penaltieswhen you die.It made novice players able to catch up tothe more experienced companionsa lot faster than normal.World of Warcraft is stillthe most iconic MMORPG on the map.When people think of MMOs they stillthink of World of Warcraft first.- 2005, Guitar Hero.In video games it's allabout the controller.Think about the simple Atari joystick,or the controller for the NES.But most controllers arevariations on a theme.With Guitar Hero players gotsomething completely different.Here was a simulated guitarthat anyone could pick upand know sort of what to dowith pretty much right away.Guitar Hero was a party gamethat expanded their reach of video games.Anyone at a social gatheringwanted to pick up the guitarand play and try to see how they do,even if, in the end,they probably didn'thit all the right notes.- 2006, Wii Sports.You probably have an idea in your headwhen someone says, "I'm a video gamer."And the first thing you think of isprobably not your 90-year-old grandmother.But wen it comes to Wii Sportsyou might as well think about her,because she's probably playing it.Along with all of her grandkids.Wii Sports became one of themost popular sports gamesand one of the mostpopular games of all timeand launched the Nintendo Wiiconsole to massive success.In fact, there were lots of peoplewho were buying NintendoWii who didn't even knowthat it could play a different game.Wii Sports helped the Nintendo Wiisell over 100 million consoles,and its' motion-controlledremote and nunchuckeven spurred Microsoft and Sonyto design their ownmotion controlled systemthe Microsoft Kinect andthe PlayStation move.2007, Portal.In 2007 Valve Corporationreleased a really interesting,almost funny-looking gamecalled The Orange Box.It was a compilation of five games.Four of them were first person shootersfrom some of their morepopular franchises,like Half Life Two and Team Fortress Two,and there was this shortpuzzle game called Portal.Surprisingly enough, that small game,which could be completedin four hours or less,ended up receiving more critical acclaimthan the other four games put together.Portal had a unique gameplaysystem using portal guns,which allowed the shooterto shoot in one areaand move in a different direction.So you could exit oneroom in one directionand enter another inthe opposite direction,or in fact move throughwalls and ceilings.But one of the mostenduring parts of portalwas its single vocalist.- [GLaDOS] Very, very good.A complementary victory lifthas been activated in the main chamber.- Her name was Ellen McClainand she played a darkly sarcasticartificial intelligence named GLaDOS,who promised to navigate youthrough the Aperture Science Lab.And as long as you performto her satisfaction,you would be rewardedwith a delicious sliceof black forest cake.Unfortunately the cake was a lie.She actually tried to kill you.- 2008, World of Goo.Video games, especiallystarting in the 1990s,were made by massive teamspouring massive amounts of moneyinto the development of the game.But starting in the early 2000snew tools began to emerge thatallowed single individualsor small teams to create a game.One of those games was World of Goo.A fun, splattering game that reallyhad a playful spirit about it,and yet, low budget looking animations.The result was something attainable,yet fun, and really spurredthe indie game movementthat really is a key playerin today's video game world.2009, Angry Birds.It's the first game that reallytranscended mobile gaming.Not only inspired peoplesometimes to buy a phone itself,but also to buy lots of other merchandiseinspired by the game.Angry Birds was important,not only for its popularity,but the way it brought newgamers into the fold of gaming.Someone who would neverconsider themselves a gamerfound themselves addicted to Angry Birds.Eagerness to see if they could knock downthose devilish pigs and really try to getto the next level in thegame that was frustrating,fascinating, and most of all, fun.- 2010, Starcraft II: Wings of Liberty.Starcraft is one of the best examplesof the real time strategy genre.Unlike a lot of the most popularreal time strategy games,it takes place in space,with three very distinct races.Humans, Protoss, and Zergs.One of the things thatsets Starcraft apartfrom its contemporarieswas the fact that eachfaction was uniquely differentin how you could build your bases,lead your armies, andwhat your powers were.The original Starcraft alsopioneered what we call todaythe eGames Sports movement.The eSports movement wasespecially popular in South Korea.But with Starcraft 2 it branched outand became one of the mostpopular eSport games worldwide.- 2011, Minecraft.A Lego brick affords alot more varieties at playthan the talking Barbie.Both can be fun, but one opensup many more possibilities.Minecraft was the Lego brickof the video game universe.Add simple eight-bit looking graphicsthat opened up a creativeworld for playersto build things that they could imaginein ways they couldn't build in real lifewith those atom-based Lego bricks.Result was a game that has yieldedmillions of hours of gameplay as playersdiscover the possibilitiesof building somethingon the computer screen thatbefore they could only imagine.- 2012, Journey.Set in a vast desert wherethe player feels small againstthis wide expansivesand and tall mountains.Journey evokes this senseof solitude and wonder.Players are allowed to communicatewith each other only through chimes.Not through a voice or text.They can help each other but never hinder.The game was also designedto be so simplisticthat players wouldn't requireany in-game instructionso they wouldn't betaken out of their world.Journey is also known for itssweeping, evocative soundtrack,which was the first video gameto be nominated for a Grammy Award.[intense music]- 2013, The Last of US.Early video games were longon play and short on story.There's not much story in Donkey Kong.It was a damsel in distress,Jump Man rescuing his love.Yeah, as games have developed over timethe stories have gotten more compelling,and studios have learned how to tellthose stories more effectively.The Last of Us, in some ways,[voice muffled] very standard genre,the zombie apocalypse.With many video games thereare very artificial mechanicsthat move the story along.Maybe you get to a newlevel, for instance,or your character gains new abilities.But The Last of Us, you'rein the story always,as your main character andthe girl who is the sidekick,went through the story,developing almost like a novel.It was compelling because it felt realin a way that more artificialsystems would not have.- 2014, Destiny.Destiny was developed by Bungie,best known for their Halo franchise.And with Destiny theycreated yet another hit.Perhaps best known for itspersistent online world,which means that thingscontinuously happeneven when you're not logged on,Destiny creates a world where playerscan do their own thing,but also just randomlymeet up with other peoplefor worldwide events.Maybe there's a boss fight that pops up.Or a raid that needs to be completed.Everyone can interact or you can ignore itand just keep on doing what you're doing.The choice is up to you.Bungie also made a commitment with Destinythat it was going to becontinuously updated,they said until the end of time.But probably at least untilthe company goes out of business.Because of that Destinyreceives continuous updatesand support so players never have to worrythat they're gonna run out of new content.2015, Undertale.Most video games are developedby a whole crowd of people,or at the very least one or two.Undertale was developed, published,written, and composed bya single person, Toby Fox.He created a game that he wanted to play.And if there was an elementin a game that he didn't like,he just didn't include it.So for example, he hated fetch questsbecause it made you go backand retread old ground.He also hated being forced togrind for experience points.So none of those thingsappeared in Undertale.One thing that did, however,was a very interesting game mechanicthat allowed you three choiceswhenever you faced a monster.You could fight them and kill themlike you normally would in a video game,but you could also choose to fleaor you could choose to befriend them.And depending on you choice,and your various choicesthroughout the game,you received a different ending.That could sometimes evencontinue on to subsequent playsif you decided to playthe game over again.- 2016, That Dragon, Cancer.When Trip Hawkins firststarted Electronic Arts,he ran a series of adsthat asked the question,can a game make you cry?With That Dragon, Cancer, there was a gamethat really had the potentialto move players to tears,in large part because it was basedon the real life experienceof the developer,who lost his son.That Dragon, Cancer,brought to the video gamethe tragedy and sometimes thetedium of what it was liketo wait with a sickchild, to experience that.It's a game that anyone whoplayed it could not forget.And it's a game that began toshow the power of the mediumas it developed to bring new sensesof what was possible in video games.New ways to move players andnew ways to show the artistryand the pathos that ispossible in video games.- 2017, Fortnite.The most important gamessometimes aren't the first gamesto adapt a certain medium.Take the battle royalemode of video games.Fortnite was not the first gameto use a battle royale mode,in which you're the last player standing.Think of something likeHunger Games, for instance.But something aboutFortnite was compelling.Well, maybe that something was the factthat it was free to playand also the fact that it had graphicsthat were accessible to anyone.Meanwhile, a circle is shrinking,limiting the amount of space you can go.Meaning that in the end onlyone person will survive.It was not the first battle royale game,but something about the game,that combination of fast action,of suspense, of accessible graphics,and the free to play mode madeit a video game phenomenon,brought new players in,brought players of allages together to play.- 2018, Celeste.Some games you just enjoy playing.There's not really as muchrhyme or reason for it,you just really like it.Celeste tended to be one of those,with the gamers for whom it was popular.Celeste had someinteresting game mechanicsthat allowed you to do thingslike double dash in midair.It wasn't the first game to do that,but combined with the fact that each roomwas its own individual puzzle,it made everything feel faster, stronger,and it also allowed for agreat deal of replayability,since each room had maybea different way to play it.Several rooms also hadhidden cassette tapes.If you found the cassette tapeit would unlock a b-side to the level,which was a harder version.If you beat every single b-sideit unlocked a c-side and allowed youto play an even harder version.Basically allowing for almostendless replayability of the game.But what really hooked alot of players to Celestewas the protagonist herself,a young girl named Madeline,who was trying desperatelyto scale a mountain.She kept being hinderedby a reflection of herselfthat she called a piece of me.It turned out that this piece of herwas a metaphor for her owninternal anxiety and depression,and it was only by combiningthe two aspects of herself,that she was able tofinally scale the mountain,which is a really interesting metaphor,I think, for most of us.- [Jon-Paul] That was every iconic gamefor the past 40 years.- [Shannon] We hope you learned somethingand had some fun doing it.We'll look forward to seeingwhat the next 40 years bring.[light music]